Post-term or post-date pregnancy is one that exceeds 42 weeks gestation. If a woman is healthy and well nourished then her placenta is likely to thrive and nourish the baby at any gestation. If there are signs that mother or baby will be healthier with baby Earth-side, then induction is warranted; otherwise it’s a much overused intervention that leads to a Cascade of Intervention.
While breastfeeding is actively promoted in almost all Canadian communities, a new mother may need or want to prevent further lactation or dry up her milk. Reasons include still-born, surrogacy, medical conditions requiring treatment contraindicated with breastfeeding, past abuse, and lifestyle choices. For many women it’s a very difficult decision. Women need acceptance and supported in their choices. To that end, here’s information to help a woman cease lactation in the safest and least painful way.
Your waters just released – now what? Waters can release as a few drops at a time or in a gush. Only 10% of women will experience waters releasing before labour has started. In that case labour usually starts within 24 hours. The other 90% of women’s waters will release at some point during labour, usually in active labour. Below is info on self-care and warning signs.
CALENDULA PADS – For swelling, pain, heat. Make 5-10 pads 6 weeks before due date.
Calendula flowers promote healing and are soothing when applied topically.
- Calendula Mixture: Make tea from dried calendula leaves (1 full tea ball per cup water steeped for 10 min) or use tincture (20-30 drops per cup water). Add 1-2 drops of lavender essential oil or some lavender tea to mixture.
- Partially dip maxi pads – preferably long, organic – in calendula mixture briefly, just to soak top layer. Another option is to use a sprayer to wet the tops.
- Freeze pads in bowls so they’re curved like the female body. Store in Ziplocs (labeled with your name) in freezer.
- Bring the pads to birth-place! Hospitals and birthing centers have freezers.
- Apply immediately after birth.
Soothing and healing for swelling, pain, abrasions, tears, bruising. It’s safe to use with stitches. This can be prepared during early labor or ahead of time and frozen/refrigerated.
- Fill a peri- or spray-bottle with calendula mixture (above), a healing solution (below) or warm water.
- Hospitals will provide a peri-bottle. A spritz bottle works too.
- Squirt solution on perineum after every washroom use, shower/bath, or in between if extra relief is needed. Do not rinse solution off.
- If urination burns then squirt during urination or pee in the bath.
- Allow the area to dry between applications. Air-time or even a cool blow drier can be helpful.
- Note: if the rectum is sore or stitched, support the perineum with a cloth during bowel movements (like pooping into a cloth).
- Soak your perineum in a bath for 15 minutes, 3 times daily. Shallow water is fine.
- Add Epsom salt and if you wish to use herbs, add 1-2 cups raw herbs or healing herb tea, ¼ cup tincture, or up to 5 drops of pure essential oil. If you wish to use plain water then spray the healing solution after the bath.
- Some women like cool water for inflammation while others find warm water soothing. Experiment with temperatures but avoid extremes during the initial postpartum days, and keep the rest of your body warm.
- Do not sit on a donut-shaped vessel in the bath as it adds pressure.
Calendula is healing, along with other herbs such as comfrey, lavender, witch hazel, tea-tree, yarrow. Feel free to ask me about the various healing properties of the different herbs. Nice sitz-bath blends can be purchased – look for an Epsom salts base with herbs or pure essential oils; no fragrance or additives. There are some nice soothing perineum sprays on the market, such as Earth Mama Angel Baby New Mama Bottom Spray, sold in Regina at Head-to-Heal Wellness in Cathedral, or Hello Baby in East.
RECOVERY FROM DIFFICULT BIRTH
After a difficult birth follow the above recommendations plus:
- Keep knees together as much as possible for the first 2 weeks, even while walking
- Avoid stairs
- Lift nothing heavier than the baby
- Allow area to “breath” – air time or cotton panties (no synthetics)
- Avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time
- Avoid perfumes, chemicals
- Avoid straining on the toilet – good nutrition and lots of water, support perineum with a cloth during bowel movements (like pooping into a cloth)
- See a Physiotherapist who specializes in women’s pelvic floor to heal pelvic floor muscles; recover from perineum tears; avoid or heal incontinence, painful intercourse and pelvic pain
- Consider seeing a complimentary practitioner who specializes in and is experienced with maternal postpartum recovery, such as a Webster certified chiropractor or an osteopath, to help ensure pelvic organs, bones, ligaments are healthy and aligned.
SPECIAL INFANT CARE FOLLOWING DIFFICULT BIRTH
- Lots of frontal contact, skin-to-skin if possible; helps establish breastfeeding and is reassuring for baby. Babies who are held feed better, poop and pee more, and are therefore less prone to jaundice and other illnesses.
- See a complimentary practitioner who specializes in and is very experienced with newborn care, especially if there was any trauma to baby’s head (vacuum, forceps, caesarean, malposition, and/or long “pushing stage”) e.g. chiropractor, cranio-sacral therapist, osteopath.
“Labouraid” and broths are excellent for hydration, energy and electrolytes. They help keep the powerful forces of labour progressing. Stock the ingredients at home and prepare at the first sign of labour. Or make ahead (this is a great task for someone who wishes to help out) and freeze as cubes, popsicles, or in a bottle, to be thawed and consumed as labour progresses. Most women prefer their labouraide chilled and their broths warm.
LABOURAID DRINK – version #1 (From many midwives and natural birth books)
1 L water or Pregnancy Tea
1/3 C raw honey or real maple syrup
1/3 C juice, fresh-squeezed from a real lemon
1/2 t salt, preferably Celtic or Himalayan
1/4 t baking soda
2 crushed calcium tablets
These next two versions are from http://www.mommypotamus.com/how-to-make-a-labor-aid-electrolyte-drink/). See site for details of ingredients.
LABOURAID DRINK – version #2 / Lemon Labor Aide
4 C water
1/2 C freshly squeezed lemon juice
1/4 t salt, preferably Celtic or Himalayan
1/4 C raw honey (or more to taste)
a few drops concentrated minerals (available at health stores, optional)
a few drops Rescue Remedy (optional)
LABOURAID DRINK – version #3 / Coconut & Lime Labor Aide
3 C coconut water
1 C water (or more)
1/2 C freshly squeezed lime juice
1/4 t salt, preferably Celtic or Himalayan
2 T raw honey or maple syrup
a few drops concentrated minerals (available at health stores, optional)
a few drops Rescue Remedy (optional)
Add fresh or dried veggies (e.g. carrots, celery, onion, garlic – anything) to boiling water
Simmer for 20-30 min
Add 1 T apple-cider vinegar
Season with any herbs or spices you like
Add salt to taste, preferably Himilayan or Celtic (kelp powder can be used instead)
Blend to smooth consistency or strain veggie chunks out
Put bones and any left-over bits, including meat on bones in pot and cover with water.
Add 1-2 T apple cider vinegar
Bring to boil then simmer (large bones such as beef for up to 24 hours; small animal bones such as chicken only need 3-4 hours)
Add salt to taste, preferably Himilayan or Celtic (kelp powder can be used instead)
Optional: Add dried or finely chopped fresh veggies, herbs or spices and simmer for another 30min
The report alleging an infant being infected with Group-B Strep bacteria from placenta capsules is completely inaccurate. In reading through the details (summarized below), you’ll see that it’s impossible that the placenta capsules were the source of infection. This is not a study, but rather a media article. One story is never a scientific study. As is often the case in anything birth-related, the headline is misleading.
Waterbirth provides a wonderful and gentle birth experience for both mother and baby. Often shorter labours with fewer complications are seen. This in turn leads to a better experience for dads. Mothers rate high satisfaction with waterbirth experiences, as do fathers and birth attendants.
This is the updated term for postpartum depression (PPD). PMAD is a form of clinical depression or mental illness that can begin at any time after childbirth, from days to even years after in some cases. PPD is not something that is anyone’s fault or that necessarily be controlled. Between 3-24% of new mothers are afflicted, and up to 50% of male partners of women with PPD also experience PPD (Clinical Rounds, MCU Oct 2011). Although hormone drops are often blamed, no causation has been proven. PPD is more serious than postpartum blues; if the blues last longer than 2 weeks and aren’t resolved by rest and support then seek help.
Symptoms of PMAD include any of the following: crying for no reason, inability to cope, feeling overwhelmed, sadness, anger, hopelessness, impaired memory or concentration, loss of interests, nightmares, bizarre / strange / intrusive thoughts, perceived or actual difficulties bonding with baby, feelings of resentment or aggression toward baby or family members, apathy toward baby, thoughts of suicide. Call your midwife or health practitioner in case of any of these symptoms.
Risk Factors of PMAD
Note: PMAD can hit any woman at any time postpartum – for no apparent reason. However the following increase the risk.
- Personal or family history of depression, related to birth or not
- Traumatic birth
- Low blood-iron levels
- Twins or multiples
- Being “run-down” e.g. fatigue, low blood sugar
- Stress e.g. such as social, economic, relationship, health concerns, child-care issues
- Lack of social support
- Perceived or actual isolation
- Formula feeding in place of breastfeeding
- Cigarette smoking
- Infant temperament
- An affected partner
“Baby-blues” is a normal, natural emotional reaction to birth that last hours or a few days. Symptoms are mild and transient and occur in 50-80% of new mothers around day 3, when your milk comes in. You may experience tears, exhaustion, worry, irritability, and lack of confidence. Mothers experiencing baby-blues need support, rest and care to prevent it from progressing to depression. If it lasts longer then it’s prudent to follow the measures listed under “Prevention and Treatment Strategies.”
Postpartum psychosis is a rare but severe and sudden mental illness that requires immediate 911 medical attention. Symptoms include those for PPD, plus some or all of the following: refusal to eat, fatigue, frantic excessive energy, confusion, delusions, loss of memory, failure to recognize familiar people, visual or auditory hallucinations, irrational statements, distorted thinking, suicidal or infanticidal thoughts and behaviours. Seek 911 medical help immediately.
Prevention and Treatment Strategies
Although there may be factors that can’t be controlled, the best defence against PMAD is a well supported, healthy mother. There seem to be higher rates of PMAD in Western cultures, likely due to stress and isolation. In almost every other culture, new mothers are surrounded by women and family to take care of them. All they’re expected to do is rest, recover, breastfeed and bond with baby for the first 40 days. In North America most new mothers are expected to take care of themselves, their baby, and the household; and of course entertain a steady stream of visitors who want to check out the baby.
- Prevention starts during pregnancy
- Learn as much as possible about birth, breastfeeding and life after baby
- Arrange postpartum support to allow for rest and bonding i.e. circle of friends or family, postpartum doula, community resources
- Learn to say no
- Plan to do nothing for 8 weeks; have freezer full of healthy tasty prepped food, kitchen stoked with non-perishables, household items stocked, major home chores done, hire house-keeper, dog-walker etc, get groceries delivered
- Early intervention leads to shorted duration
- Limit visitors and length of visits!!! Have a visitor rule: everyone has to bring a healthy meal – fresh or frozen – and do a chore from a “to-do” list on your fridge. Set a time limit.
- Take one day at a time
- Ask for help
- Manage pain, even if that means taking pain meds while breastfeeding
- Have and use a simple schedule, allowing for the unpredictability of newborns
- Take it slow; re-enter world gently if hibernating with new baby (40 days highly recommended)
- Adequate sleep; sleep when the baby sleeps
- Hormones of breastfeeding, prolactin and oxytocin, help reduce PPD
- Several studies find breastfeeding mothers actually get more sleep on average than formula feeders
- Benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and baby far outweigh any risk of anti-depressant drugs effecting baby
- Do something that brings joy daily
- Find a way to have a little time alone daily, including time to relax (meditation, rest, praying, reading – whatever’s rejuvenating)
- Self-care e.g. shower, get dressed, eat, get out for walk
- Healthy foods (see Postpartum Nutrition handout)
- Ingesting placenta e.g. dry and encapsulate
- Craniosacral therapy, especially in case of lost consciousness during birth process
- Community support programs such as Y’s Moms and LaLecheLeague groups
- Mental health professional, ideally one who specializes in postpartum mental health
- For mild PMAD, take supplements of a fish oil high in EPA and St John’s Wort; can be taken with antidepressant medication; safe with breastfeeding
- Psychiatric care may be required including antidepressant drugs, many are safe for breastfeeding
- Many antipsychotic drugs are not recommended with breastfeeding, but there may be alternative schedules available for some women (e.g., taking high dose at night and then not using breastmilk until 8-12 hours later – do this only upon advise from psychiatrist, who will help determine safe dosages and timing on a case-by case basis)
Support Measures to Consider
- Support with housework, meals, daily tasks from one with whom mother feels comfortable
- Postpartum doula
- Call midwife or health practitioner with any concerns or questions regarding blues or depression
- Families Matter Postpartum Support 1-888-545-5177
- Sask Health Link 811
- Online support at Mothering Magazine’s Forum: mothering.com/community
What Partner Can Do
Be there. Be present and involved. While PMAD affects the mother directly, it’s a family issue. Partners can’t “fix” this, but can be supportive.
- Call midwife or health practitioner right away with any concerns
- Don’t wait for mother to reach out – find help for her
- Remind partner that she’s loved and partner is there for her
- This is no one’s fault – remain non-judgemental
- If she cries just hug and hold – allow the tears
- Remind mother to get fresh air or do something for herself daily. Make it happen.
- Do something as a family – take a walk, cuddle by the fire
- Self-care as this is a difficult time for partners too. New parenthood is an adjustment for both parents even without challenges such as PMAD. Eat well, rest when possible, and get fresh air.
- Remember anything that takes care of mother (food, chores etc) is also taking care of baby
- If partner can’t be there and take care of food / home then arrange for people who can
- Listen attentively – partner may be the only person she opens up to
- Remind her that she’s not alone, this will get better and you’ll all get through together
- Ask “what can I do” or “what do you need” rather than “do you need anything”
- Point out triumphs such as growing a healthy baby, meeting with a counsellor
- Guard the door – only supportive helpful visitors are allowed and only if mom truly has energy
- Be open with those closest family / friends about what’s happening
- Observe, as health practitioner will ask about patterns and behaviours
- Be wary of partners mental health; up to 50% of male partners of women with PPD also experience PPD (Clinical Rounds, MCU Oct 2011)
For mild issues some women find just getting out for fresh air daily, or having a bath, time with girlfriends, a nap, or whatever their thing is, helps.
- Healthline Phone (part of public health care) as they have the training to screen and refer now and alert crisis if needed (811 is the new number)
- Smiling Mask www.thesmilingmask.com and/or book by Carla O’Reilly & Tania Bird (this is a brilliant resource started by 3 local Regina women who suffered from PPD)
- Edinborough screening tool – self assessment. This is now part of the EPDS Screening, available at http://skprevention.ca/?s=EPDS . There’s some other good info on that page too. Take this to a qualified care provider if you score in a range that needs to be addressed. Do this test at regular intervals.
- Marlene Harper (Private therapist) 306-584-2731, Regina (note i don’t know her personally but she comes recommended by other mamas)
- Online Therapy – cognitive behavior treatment program for maternal depression (Pilot program; may or may not continue long term)
- Includes 7 interactive evidence based modules
Therapist-assisted via email and telephone
Provided at no cost
Inclusion criteria: SK resident, > 18 years, minor-major depressive symptoms, have a child <1 year
For more information or to refer:
–Email: Nicole Pugh: pugh…@uregina.ca
–Phone: (306) 585-5369; (306) 337-3331
- Includes 7 interactive evidence based modules
Holistic helpers who may be able to offer help, and could certainly compliment any medical care.
Dr. Vanessa DiCicco, ND – http://wellfamily.ca/meet-nds/vanessa-dicicco/
Cheryl Lloyd, hypnotherapist www.tranquiljourneys.ca
Psych Unit at RGH
Visitors are welcome!
Calgary Health Region. (2007). From Here Through Maternity. Calgary: Alberta Health Services.
Corwin, E., Murray-Kolb, L., & Beard, J. (2003). Low Hemoglobin Level Is a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression. The Journal of Nutrition , 133, 4139-42.
Kendall-Tacket, K. P. (2005). The Hidden Feelings of Motherhood (2nd ed.). Amarillo, TX: Pharmasoft Publishing, L.P.
Kendall-Tackett, K. (2010, Aug). Nighttime Breastfeeding and Maternal Mental Health. Retrieved Sep 2011, from Science & Sensibility: http://www.scienceandsensibility.org/?p=1398
La Leche League Canada Health Professional Seminar, Calgary AB. Preserving the Simplicity of Breastfeeding in a Complex World: a Paradigm for Depression, Stress and Postpartum Healing. 1 day seminar; Dr. Kathleen Kendall-Tackett. 2008.
Lim, R. (2001). After the Baby’s Birth – A Complete Guide for Postpartum Women (Revised). Toronto: Celestial Arts.
Sarah Breese McCoy, J. Martin Beal, Stacia Miller-Shipman, Mark Payton, Gary Watson. (2006). Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression: A Retrospective Investigation at 4-Weeks Postnatal and a Review of the Literature. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association , 106 (4), 193-198.
The Mother Reach coalition . (n.d.). Postpartum Mood Disorder . Retrieved Sep 2011, from Mother Reach: http://www.helpformom.ca/
Varney, H., Kriebs, J. M., Gegor, C. L. (2004). Varney’s Midwifery, 4th Ed. Toronto: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Fetal position at the onset of labour is one of the greatest determining factors of how the birth process will proceed. During labour the fetus makes certain movements to descend through the pelvis. The optimal fetal position is pictured below. A good way to remember the best position is to think about giving your baby a back rub every time you rub your belly.
A spot near the back of the fetal head is used to determine fetal position. The terms “posterior” or “sunny-side up” describe a baby who faces out, or is spine-to-spine with mother. “OP” is the medical jargon. The presenting part of the head is bigger in this position and the baby doesn’t flex and rotate as well as an anterior baby.
Problems Related to Posterior Position
- More difficult for baby to drop into and through the pelvis
- Pregnancy may last longer
- Membranes are more likely to rupture before the onset of labour
- Labour may progress slowly or not at all
- Back-pain during labour that doesn’t disappear between contractions
- Increased risk of tearing
- Increased risk of instrumental or surgical birth
- Increased stress on baby’s head and nervous system
However some women birth a posterior baby just fine. Those include but are not limited to, women who’ve given birth without difficulty before, those with an average or smaller baby, a labouring woman who’s able to move about freely and allow her baby to rotate into an anterior position.
Baby in optimal position: head down and flexed, back out.
Signs of a Posterior Baby
- Feeling kicks or flutters at your front
- Frequent urination (more frequent than with anterior pregnancy)
- Belly appears flat or lumpy
- Your midwife or doctor can tell by palpating your abdomen, as is done at every prenatal visit
- Fetal heart-tones may be difficult to hear
- Head is not engaged or doesn’t drop into pelvis
- Can be confirmed with ultrasound
- During labour she can also tell during an internal examination
Factors Contributing to Posterior Position
Posterior-babies can occur with no risk factors, but the following increase the chances:
- North American lifestyle – reclining in upholstered furniture, sedentary lifestyle, sitting in cars (it’s interesting to note this position is rare in cultures where women walk a lot or work bent-over, and lack Lazy-Boy style chairs and couches)
- Sitting with legs crossed
- Postural or anatomical issues
- Issue of uterine / abdominal muscles (e.g. tight psoas)
- First pregnancy
- Epidural use early in labour (hinders rotation and descent of baby) is correlated with more than 3x the rate of posterior position at birth (Tully, 2008)
- Labouring in bed or without adequate movement
- Baby who was breech and turned to vertex
- Mother with history of breech or posterior baby
- Short or tight cord around baby
- Emotional issues – fear of birth or parenting, not paying attention to pregnancy, family history of breech, relationship issues, financial concerns, stress (Frye, 1998)
Tricks for Turning a Posterior Baby to an Anterior Position
Sometimes there’s a reason (that we don’t know about) for baby to be posterior and nothing will turn her or him. But in many cases a baby can be turned. Please ask for details or referrals.
- Visualization and “talking” to your baby. Focus on letting the baby know it’s easier to get out when facing the other way. This works especially well if combined with changing your emotional environment e.g. dealing with fears, prepping for birth.
- Look at a picture of baby in proper position (e.g. Fig. 1), or have it drawn on your belly!
- Webster Technique with a chiropractor certified in its use. Pistolese (2002) cites an 82% rate of success in relieving the musculoskeletal causes of intrauterine constraint. It’s beneficial to perform the Webster Technique starting at 35-36 weeks.
- Sit with pelvis tilted forward – knees below pelvis with straight back. Instead of upholstered furniture, use a birth ball, the floor, a kneeling chair or a regular hard chair or stool
- Hands and knees – read, crawl around, or child’s pose modified for pregnant belly
- Pelvic rocking while on all 4’s – gentle cats and dogs yoga postures – several times daily
- Swimming or floating – anything with belly down like a hammock for baby to drop into
- Movement and exercise
- Sleep on left side with a body pillow – left leg straight, right leg bent on pillow
- Keep belly warm (babies may turn back to keep warm against mother’s back)
- Homeopathic Pulsatilla 200CH, 1 dose every 3 days.
- Acupuncture or moxibustion – see a Traditional Doctor of Chinese Medicine or an acupuncturist who specializes in women’s and pregnancy care.
- Deal with fears around childbirth and parenting
- Postural management – check out spinningbabies.com for some excellent postures and exercises that encourage babies to assume optimal positions for birth.
Frye, A. (1998). Holistic Midwifery, Vol 1, Care During Pregnancy. Portland, OR: Labrys Press.
Ohm, J. (2006). About the Webster Technique. Retrieved from icpa (International Chiroractic Pediatric Association): http://icpa4kids.com/about/webster_technique.htm
Pistolese, R. (2002). The Webster Technique: A chiropractic technique with obstetril implications. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics , 25 (6), E1-E9.
Tayler, R. (2000). Homeopathy for Pregnancy and Childbirth. Ottawa: Ottawa School of Homeopathy.
The Midwifery Group. (2008). Posterior Babies. Retrieved from The Midwifery Group: http://www.midwiferygroup.ca/downloads/position/Posterior%20Babies.pdf
Tully, G. (2008). Occiput Posterior – OP. Retrieved from Spinning Babies: http://www.spinningbabies.com/baby-positions/posterior
In spite of a mountain of evidence to support the benefits of leaving the newborn cord intact, immediate cord clamping is still routine care in many hospitals. Updated obstetrical guidelines in the UK are to leave the cord intact for at least 1 minute and up to 5 minutes, and to leave it for longer than 5 minutes if requested by the mother (NICE, 2016). The Cochrane Review, considered the highest standard globally in evidence-based health care information, contains countless articles on the benefits of delayed cord clamping.
The placental blood normally belongs to the infant, and his/her failure to get this blood is equivalent to submitting the newborn to a severe hemorrhage at birth. (DeMarsh, 1941)
Yes, we’ve known since 1941! Changing practise takes a long time indeed.
Immediate umbilical cord clamping after delivery is routine… despite little evidence to support this practice. Numerous trials in both term and preterm neonates have demonstrated the safety and benefit of delayed cord clamping. The failure to more broadly implement delayed cord clamping in neonates ignores published benefits of increased placental blood transfusion at birth and may represent an unnecessary harm for vulnerable neonates. (McAdams, 2014)
Basic newborn & cord physiology
- The placenta is nature’s neonatal life-support system
- Oxygenation continues until newborn lungs transition (30 to 90 seconds in a full-term infant)
- Placental transfusion (blood moving from placenta to baby’s body) rate: 50% in 1 minute; nearly 100% over the next 2 to 5 minutes
- “Delayed” in research ranges from 30sec – 3min, depending on the researcher and study
- The newborn heart can beat and the brain can tolerate of lack of oxygen for up to 20 minutes (Resuscitation Council (UK), 2001; Frye, 2004; WHO, 1999) as long as the cord is intact.
- Newborns cope well with lack of oxygen but struggle with low blood volume
At time of birth:
- Blood volume of newborn at birth: 78ml/kg
- Volume after 3min placental transfusion: 126ml/kg
- g., 3.6kg (8lb) baby has 280ml – 450ml blood volume – a 40% difference!
- Adults may go into shock and receive blood transfusions at 15 to 30% blood-loss.
Intact cord – birth to 15minutes (Elphanie, 2011)
Benefits of DCC
- 40% more blood volume
- 45-50% increased levels of red blood cell counts and blood iron levels
- Benefits / effects last well past the newborn period
- Protection from anaemia and iron deficiency for at least 6 months (Chaparro et al., 2006)
- Significantly lower rates and less severity of common, major newborn health issues
- More stable vital signs and thrive better
- Less likely to require blood transfusion, ventilation and oxygen therapy
- Lower rates of anaemia at 6 months
Overall, the available evidence appears to suggest that DCC is likely to result in better neonatal outcomes in both term and preterm infants. (Garafalo, 2012)
Issues related to immediate cord clamping:
- Stem-cell banking: Alberta Health Services (2007) lists the maximum blood draw for an 8lb baby as 2.5-3.5ml in 24 hours, as more may lead to medical complications. Green (2008) cites the same daily limit and 23-30ml total in 1 month.
- The minimum amount of blood acceptable for collection is 45ml, maximum is 215ml; 100ml is optimal (Reed, 2011; CRYO-CELL International Inc., 2011).
- Jaundice: Leaving the umbilical cord intact does not lead to pathological jaundice. The naturally occurring physiological newborn jaundice has no clinical significance.
- Cord gases don’t change significantly even after 2 minutes of delayed clamping (De Paco et al., 2011).
- Dysfunctional cord: If a baby is born flat with a limp, non-pulsing cord then the cord is no longer working. In this case immediate clamping is warranted.
Does anything replace DCC?
- Neither “milking”/“stripping” cord, nor gravity accomplish or speed-up full placental transfusion
Objections by your medical care provider?
Dr. Mark Sloan wrote an excellent article, Common Objections to Delayed Cord Clamping; What’s the Evidence Say? that addresses common misinformation and discusses the benefits of delayed cord clamping.
Even the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping for all healthy infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth, “given the numerous benefits to most newborns” (ACOG, 2017). It’s not enough but is a big step forward for ACOG, notoriously interventionist.
ACOG American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth. Obstet Gynecol 2017;129:e5–10. http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Delayed-Umbilical-Cord-Clamping-After-Birth
Alberta Health Services. (2007). Maximum blood draw protocol for pediatric patients.
Asfour, V., & Bewley, S. (2011). Cord clamping practice could affect the ratio of placental weight to birthweight and perinatal outcomes. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology., 118 (12), 1539-40.
Buckley, D. S. (2005). Gentle Birth, Gentle Mothering. Brisbane: One Moon.
Chaparro, C. M., Neufeld, L. M., Alavez, G. T., Cedillo, R., & Dewey, K. G. (2006). Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 367 (9527), 1997-2004.
Crews, C. (2007). Clamping of the umbilical cord – immediate or delayed. Is this really an issue? Retrieved from Midwifery Services of South Texas: http://www.midwiferyservices.org/umbilical_cord_clamping.htm
CRYO-CELL International Inc. (2011). Cord blood collection instructions. Florida.
De Paco, C., Florido, J., Garrido, M., Prados, S., Navarrete, L. (2011). Umbilical cord blood acid-base and gas analysis after early versus delayed cord clamping in neonates at term. Arch Gynecol Obstet , 283 (5), 1011-4.
De Marsh, Q. B., et al. (1941).”The Effect of Depriving the Infant of its Placental Blood.” Journal of the American Medical Association (J.A.M.A.),
Elphanie. (2011, Oct). Magical Umbilical Cords. Retrieved from Nurturing Hearts Birth Services: http://www.nurturingheartsbirthservices.com/blog/?p=1542
Fogelson, D. N. (2011). Delayed cord clamping grandrRounds. USC School of Medicine, A.P. Dept. Obstetrics and Gynecology. South Carolina: Palmetto Health Grand Rounds.
Frye, A. (2004). Holistic midwifery, vol 2, Care during labour and birth. Portland: Labrys.
Greene, A. (2008). How much blood is too much guideline. Retrieved from Dr Greene: http://www.drgreene.com/article/how-much-blood-too-much-guideline
McAdams, R.M. (2014). Obstet Gynecol. 123(3):549-52. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000122.
Mercer, J. S., Vohr, B. R., McGrath, M. M., Padbury, J. F., Wallach, M., & Oh, W. (2006). Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemmorhage and late onset sepsis; a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 117 (4), 1235-1242.
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Intrapartum care for healthy women and babies
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